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S4G                                           ETYMOLOGY OF LOCAL KA3IES.
father of Siiraj Mall, the first Bharatpur Raja; Ikhu-Fath-garh, founded by one
of Suraj Mall's officers ; Birja-garM, Chinta-garhi, Inayat-garhi, Kankar-garto",
Lal-garlii, Mana-garlri, Mani-garhi, Ram-garhi, Shankar-garhi, Tilka-garhi,
Bhani-gaihi, and Tal-garhi, ail founded by Jats daring the fifty years that
elapsed between the establishment of their brief supremacy and the British
annexation. The name will probably never be used again as a local affix ; and
its extreme popularity during one half-century constitutes an interesting land-
mark in Indian provincial history^ as proof of the troubled character of the
country, when no isolated habitation was thought secure unless protected by a
circuit of wall and ditch.
Kfierd^ as seen in Piili-khera, Awa-khera, Pal-khera, Aira-khera,_ Sar-
kand-kliera, and Sel-khera, invariably implies a state of comparative depriva-
tion, which may be either of people or of fend, according as it arises either from
the emigration of the greater parfc of its inhabitants to some entirely different
locality, or by the formation of a number of subordinate hamlets in the neigh-
bourhood, which divide among themselves ail the cultivated area and leave the
old bazar merely as a central spot for common meeting,
Patti ordinarily implies a comparatively modern partition of family lands :
thus the villages, Into which the old township of Magora was divided by the
four sons of the Tomar founder, are called after their names, Ajifc-patti, Ghatam-
patti, Jajan-patfa, and Bam-patti : and similarly Etijana was divided by the Jats
into three villages known as Dilu-patti, Siu-patti, and Sultan-patti. The other
four places in the district that have this affix do not, however, boar out the
above "rale. They are Lorha-patti, Nainu-patti, Patti Bahrain, and Patti Snktu
Nether of these has any coiapaoion hamlet dating from the same time as itself;
and Naina-patti is a place of considerable antiquity, which long ago was split
up into eleven distinct villages.
Another word of precisely similar import is TTiok. This is used in the
MaM-ban pargana as an element in the name of five out of the six villages
that constitute the JSonai circle, and which are called Thok Bindavani Thok
Gyan, Thok Sara, and Thok Somera.
JOtoh is an exceptional affix, which occurs only once, ia MangaJ-kholi
the name of a Tilkge oa a 'creek' of the old stream of the Jamuna.    Tata, &
Bank, is similarly found once only, in Jamunauta,  which is a contraction for
Jamana-tata.
Of           as an affix we have examples in A'zamabad Sarae, Jamal-pnr
Saiies Mai Same, Same' Ail KMn, Sarie Dfaid, and Sarae Salivahan.   Only